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Climate change adaption & energy transition

Friday, Oct. 20, 2017
13:30 PM - 15:10 PM
Chair: Koichi Hasegawa
Room: R300(Graduate Institute of National Development)
Notes: Each presenter has 15 minutes for his/ her presentation. After all the presentations, there will be about 20-30 minutes to open the floor for Q & A for all presenters.
A2.00001
13:30 - 13:45
Climate change and vulnerability of nomadic pastoralists in Nigeria
 
Regina Hoi Yee Fu
Regina Hoi Yee Fu

This presentation attempts to study the impacts of climate change on vulnerability of Nigerian pastoralists. Agriculture in Africa is highly vulnerable to impacts of climate change, manifested through increased drought and flood severity, more intense storms, shifts in the timing and distribution of rainfall, warmer temperatures, and secondary effects such as increased pest and disease pressure. African pastoralists face several challenges that constrain their livelihoods and stifle their ability to adapt to changes in their external environment. The challenges can be grouped into four categories: climate change, political and economic marginalization, inappropriate development policies, and increasing resource competition. African pastoralists have lived with challenges of climate change and variability for millennia, and they are known to be highly resilient to erratic weather and climate conditions. However, the unprecedented rate and scale of human-induced climate change is beginning to pose problems, especially where social, political and economic factors are inimical to their livelihoods. Pastoralists in Africa are nowadays facing bigger challenges of land accessibility and lack of integration into the socio-cultural life of home communities. Climate change will be an additional stressor that outstrips their current adjustments. Vulnerability is most often represented by a suite of socio-economic, political and environmental factors that represent the sensitivity and exposure of a population to climate hazards. In studying vulnerability to climate change, researchers study exposure/sensitivity (degree to which a system is affected by or responsive to climate stimuli), resilience (ability to bounce back or to maintain stability despite disturbances) and adaptation strategy (ability to cope with disturbances). Climate change impacts on pastoral households are evident in livelihoods outcomes of higher temperature, changing landscapes and ecology, increased risk of drought, fire and floods, heat related illness and diseases among others. The understanding of vulnerability of the pastoralists in Nigeria will help us understand the root causes of violence and insecurity that are concealed in the interaction between the environmental, socio-political and economic factors. The desire of a people or social group to do things differently or do different things altogether is a function of the knowledge of climate risk available to them. More often institutions tend to plan for people without adequate information about the people’s knowledge and perception of the risk they face. The study aims to provide evidence for policy decision in ameliorating socio-political situation, increase access to grazing resource stock, to mitigate climate change impact, support livelihoods development and a crucial task to support a transition to a more sustainable society.

A2.00002
13:45 - 14:00
A comparison study of Risk perception, attitudes towards the national energy choice and climate change among Japan, and four EU countries.
 
Midori Aoyagi
Midori Aoyagi

This paper tries to analyze the differences and similarities of risk perception, attitudes towards the national energy choice and climate change among four countries, Japan, UK, Norway, Germany and France. Climate change and Fukushima nuclear power plants' accident are the two major policy factors for defining energy choice in each country. But responses are different among these five countries. Our surveys seem to give us a hint for understanding this situation. Fukushima nuclear power accident had great influence on the nuclear power policy. Although Japan was severely damaged by the accident, the Japanese 2030 GHG reduction target still includes nuclear power as a main source of energy, while Germany decided to fade-out nuclear power in the long run. The European four countries survey was a part of large EU project-EPCC, and Japanese survey was done by National Institute for Environmental Studies. Each survey was fielded between May and June 2016, using almost same questionnaires. Each sample size was over 1,000 adults, randomly selected nationally representative samples. A) Risk perception on climate change, policy support: people in this five countries are very much worried about climate change. From 83% to 94% of respondents chose “I think that the world’s climate is changing”. Two options of ”very” or “extremely” worried were chosen by 63% in Japan, 41% in France, while 30%, 29%, 20% in Germany, Norway, and UK, respectively. More than 60% respondents in all five countries chose “We are already feeling the effect (of climate change).” Less than 16% of respondents see the causes are mainly “natural process”, rather than human activity. More than half of respondents in every country are very much eager to save energy to help tackle climate change. More than 60% of respondents in every country support their own country being part of Paris agreement. B) Nuclear power generation as a favorable energy source: Japan’s distribution is very like EU three countries, very high response rate in negative options. UK public is relatively positive in nuclear power. Attitudes and risk perception towards the climate change and nuclear power are very much similar in Germany and Japan, but political consequences are different. We have to explore another factor for explaining this. Economy is the possible factor for this. Germany enjoys better economy, while Japan is suffering worst economic situation ever, people support economic over environment, according to our survey. (I appreciate EU 4 countries EPCC project (PI: Prof. Nick Pidgeon, Cardiff University) funded by EU for general help for making this comparison possible.)

A2.00003
14:00 - 14:15
Social Impact Assessment and the Amendment of the Electricity Act in Taiwan
 
Mu-Xing Lin
Mu-Xing Lin;Ting-Jieh Wang

With minor and incremental changes since its passage in 1947, Taiwan’s Electricity Act has long been criticized for failing to promote sustainability. By the end of 2016 a major revision was underway, which aimed at the reform of the electricity market, nuclear power phase-out agenda, and progress in renewable energy. In this article we attempt to use the approach of social impact assessment (SIA) to study the amendment process of the Electricity Act. As electricity is a necessity for daily life, the amendment of the Electricity Act will affect the lives of many households. Thus all members of the public can be viewed as stakeholders, whose opinions ought to be taken into consideration. Nevertheless, due to the lack of SIA in policymaking processes in Taiwan, many policies have created suboptimal outcomes, often causing widespread complaints or grievance. Given the potential impacts of the amendments to the Electricity Act, an impact assessment ought to have been conducted so that potential impacts and the opinions of stakeholders can be clarified, which will provide crucial data for lawmakers, government officials and concerned members of the public. This article will first review literature in the studies of environmental and regulatory impact assessment, with a focus on social dimensions. We will then provide analysis and suggestions of the SIA procedures, especially on the topics of scoping, stakeholder identification and public participation based on an understanding of the Taiwanese contexts. This will become the basis for further discussion of the application of SIA in the process of revising the Electricity Act. In comparing several versions of the draft amendments, we will highlight the definitions of stakeholders, policy changes and potential social impacts in different drafts. The discussion will conclude with the benefits of including SIA in the making of energy policies and laws.

A2.00004
14:15 - 14:30
The development of electricity grid, smart grid and renewable energy in Taiwan – a legal perspective
 
Hwa Meei Liou
Hwa Meei Liou

The grid has played a vital role in the evolution of the electricity market; from traditional to smart grids, from fossil fuel power generated electricity grid connections to the integration of other renewable energy forms such as solar and wind power, the grid has played a key role in each step in Taiwan’s move towards energy transition. Past research shows that the role of revisions to legislation is a key factor in reforms to the electricity market, including reforms made to the transmission and distribution element of the electricity industry. According to the newest plans for the liberalization of the electricity market, the transmission and distribution electricity grid is defined as a public conveyor. The smart grid has 6 main facets to promote, including smart generation and dispatch, smart transmission, smart consumers, smart grid electricity grid industry and the establishment of a smart grid environment; the government expects to invest one hundred billion three hundred and ninety nine thousand New Taiwan dollars into this project. In response to the possible affect the integration of renewable energy generated electricity with their unique nature could have on the grid’s stability and reliability that, there is a vital need for the regulation of the grid’s management and skills.